Contribution of Psychology in society
Posted on February 01, 2013 by datelinepeshawar
By Dr. Farhana Kazmi
Psychology subject field has been contributing usefully to bring about positive changes in the individual and collective attitude of human beings to control the negative impulses and reinforce the positive ones. It further provides the students the scholarly insight which enable them to examine the human behavior from many different perspectives such as Biological and Neurological basis of behavior, Cognitive, Psychodynamic, Socio-Cultural and Ethno-Cultural factors linked with behavior.
Psychology enables the students to serve as intellectual resource base and to apply the science of human behavior for social betterment of a society. It helps the students to be aware of the recent trends in psychology. It enables them to have a deeper understanding of improving psychological well being and also cope with the environmental pressures.
The subject develops behavioral scientist that is committed to pursuit of excellence and is endowed with vision, courage and dedication that could enables young psychologists to apply.
In the field of history, it covers the details of philosophical and psychological roots of psychology so that the students will be able to comprehend the Greek and Muslim philosophers, contributions in the development of psychology.
An introductory and modern course in psychology will help the students to understand such applied and vital areas as organizational behavior human resource management and management general.
Understanding the significance of alternative epistemological positions that provides the context for various theories in psychology and to equip the students with theories and various approaches that provides the understanding of the basis of individual differences among the human beings, also to make them competent psychometricion by delivering modern psychological tests and techniques keeping in view the nationalistic and cultural/sub cultural needs of Pakistan.
The subject is designed to the basic principles of research strategy and design, including understanding of how to formulate researchable problems and an appreciation of alternative approaches to research. It also enhances competency in understanding applying a range of methods research tools.
Psychology includes acquisition of knowledge and skills relevant to behavioral assessment, diagnosis and treatment psychopathology. Students acquire advanced research skills by participating in a clinical psychology research project. It familiarizes and trains the students for scientific analysis of psychological and ethno-cultural issues, with special reference to Pakistan.
Moreover, this subject prepares the students for specialized careers available in the job market.
Those students who want to study Psychology, they have vast opportunities in future. Although most of the people are unaware of the role of a Psychiatrists in our society but still the awareness for the importance of the subject and its practical applications is growing day by day, in this part of the world. There are numbers of diseases which we often relate to our old believes, while in fact they are covered by Psychology and have qualified treatment in it.
THE FUTURE OF PSYCHOLOGY
In the near future I expect the entire world of psychology and psychiatry to change drastically. The medical basis for psychiatric disorders will be fully understood and new treatment options will arise. The best treatments for medical and psychiatric disorders will include both, therapy and medicine (holistic and/or prescription.)
The role of the mental health professional will be different. Until now, many psychologists believe that they should only treat one family member and if others need help they should have their own special person. I too have been trained and prefer this. However, I think the field of psychology is changing. People view their therapist as the family’s doctor. They trust the individual and want to be seen by the person who knows the family. Psychologists will start to practice as dentists do. They will see many members of the family for wellness check-ups; preventative interventions, and when necessary, for crisis intervention.
The writer is Assistant Professor and Chairperson of Department of Psychology Hazara University, Mansehra.
One hateful custom of the Pathan society, Swarah
Posted on January 29, 2013 by datelinepeshawar
By Javaria Raza
Every nation is known by its special, distinctive customs. A custom may be either good or bad. If it’s bad, it makes a notorious name for the nation but, if good, it can raise the whole nation constructively. The brave and the oldest nation of Pathan have many customs and moral values which make its culture rich, strong and distinctive from other cultures. The major part is good such as its hospitality, bravery, self-esteem, courage and straight forwardness. But, there are few customs in Pathans which are surely bad and hateful.
Swarah is one such custom that seems a black spot on the beautiful culture of Pathan society. The history of swarah can be traced back to the beginning of enmity in pukhtoon society. Swarah means the practice of giving a daughter or sister in marriage to the victim family, to give refuge to the murdered family by saving the life of either brother, father or other near relatives. It is , infact, a cruel transaction because the remaining life of such a woman passes in very miserable and painful condition as she is considered a slave in her husband’s family. Throughout her life she is neither accepted nor respected as a member of that family. She is even not allowed to visit her parents and is tortured both physically and mentally. The members of her husband family hate her. The will of her husband is her will, her lips are sewed, having no right to protest against such injustice and thus an innocent girl is punished for a crime for which she is not responsible at all.. Swarah custom is fully based on injustice and is totally against ethics and the teachings of Islam, which gives equal rights to both men and women in all matters of life. It violates those fundamental human rights of a woman which have been recognized by Islam and UNO. The custom of swarah rightly deserves the attention of those who have signed CEOAW (convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women). It is the duty of woman rights organization to help those innocent women captured by such cruel custom. The government should take the necessary steps to eliminate the violation of fundamental rights of women. Surely it is also the responsibility of you and me as pathans to eliminate this dirty mark from the beautiful fabric of our culture and customs. Being a pathan, we consider ourselves brave but, just think for a while, is it fair to save the male by giving an innocent female in swarah or should we face our own evil doings by ourselves?
Just think for a while!
The writer is a PhD. scholar in department of Sociology, University of Peshawar.
Private educational institutions vs government educational institutions
Posted on January 18, 2013 by datelinepeshawar
By Hamida Bano
Man needs language to communicate his ideas and thoughts with his fellow beings. Where there is a man, there will be a language to attach him to his surrounding world. In fact, it is the major source of expression. If a language is spoken and understood by a large community of people, it is considered as an international language. Its importance could be judged from the following factors:
1) It has a great influence on science and literature
2) It is the medium of instruction in various countries
3) It politically and economically importance
4) It is used for a variety of purposes
Pakistan is a multi-lingual country. Its citizens speak different language because of its constitutionally division into four different provinces. Undoubtedly it also needed a lingua franca selected is Urdu in Pakistan. It has been established as our National language since its creation. Being a National language, it is the major medium of instruction in our country. Whether the afore-mentioned points about the importance of a language befit Urdu or not, it is a matter to be discussed in detail here. It is a well known fact that Urdu is spoken and understood just by a limited number of people in Asia only. Medium of instruction, indeed, needs to be quite vast and expended. Keeping in view all such qualities, English has been acknowledged as the major source of instruction throughout the world today. In fact, English is equipped with all spheres of knowledge, related to science, politics, religion, arts, history, philosophy, economy etc.
Pakistan has basically two types of educational institutions i.e. state-run institutions and private institutions. The medium of instruction in the former is Urdu and, in the latter, it is English. Why the results of private educational institutions are far better than the government institutions, reasons will be given as follow:
Students of private educational institution.
Private educational institutions are established on commercial basis. Its main purpose is to produce good quality product, to attract more and more people to increase its finance. Parents are well aware of the fact the English is an international medium of instruction. They wish their children go side by side with the modern developed world. So they send their children to the private institutions with a specific aim in mind. These are parents whose financial position is quite stable. They can easily afford all the expenditures of their children.
In government-run educational institutions only children of poor people come for learning. These children have no specific educational aim, not even a general one.
Private institutions produce good annual results because of the regular attendance on behalf of both students and teachers.
In government institutions neither the students nor the teachers are regular. Teachers are assigned 25 casual leaves in a year. They avail the leaves through thick and thin, whether they are in need of it or not.
In private institutions parents pay yearly and monthly fee of their children, so they regularly keep themselves aware of the output of their expenditure. The head of the institution as well as the teachers are answerable to them.
In state owned institutions children are at the disposal of their teachers. Parents are so much involved in their financial crisis that they don’t consider it necessary to go and ask about their children’s problems.
In private instructions the number of students in a class cannot exceed from 30. Teacher is relaxed enough to pay attention to each and every student in the class.
In state-run institutions the number of students usually exceed from 100 in a class. To approach all the students in such an over-crowded class is, of course, more than difficult.
As children in private institutions are financially stable, they have an abundance of self-confidence. They are bold enough to ask all sorts of questions from their teachers, if they are not satisfied with their teacher.
Students of government educational institution.
Keeping in view the above major differences, if students from some state-owned educational institutions reach to a higher rank or position, that is merely a matter of chance and nothing else. If private institutions’ students take good positions at board or university level, do we have the right to blame government students for lagging behind? No way. Stable finance and attention from both parents and teachers play a vital role in a student’s life, which a government totally lacks.
It is possible to make English as a medium of instruction at government educational institutions as well. Teachers must be given regular in-service training. They should be given awareness of the up-to-date teaching techniques in various subjects. Now the question is what should be the parameter for determining the lasting effects of the training’s success? It has been usually observed that very often, after getting the required training; teachers put aside the newly acquired methods and resort to the traditional ones. For this purpose, regular visit of the authority are quite essential to keep the trainee under observation. But, it is also necessary that the trainee should be given the required freedom to bring positive changes in the taught methods, according to his/her target situation.
In a nutshell, our government educational institutions need a great deal of improvement at various levels. If we want quality education, we must bring better changes in the whole system or, if it is possible, the government-run educational institutions must also be privatized for the betterment of the country.
The writer is an Assistant Professor of English at government girls Degree College.
Posted on January 15, 2013 by datelinepeshawar
By Hamida Bano
The term co-education has been defined as the education of both boys and girls together in the same institution. This system was primarily introduced and applied in Switzerland. Later on, it was adopted in America, France, Britain and many other European countries. It firmed its roots in our Third World countries with the growth of private education educational institutions quite recently. According to the supporters of Co-education it has become an urgent need of the day because of its economical and sociological advantages.
They believe that in a poor country like Pakistan the application of this educational system gives fruitful results from economical point of view. Same libraries and laboratories are used by both girls and boys. It saves money on the establishment of separate educational institutions with all sorts of facilities. Similarly this system greatly helps in the mutual understanding of both boys and girls and brings them socially together. It demolishes the female students’ shyness and enables them to face the outer world with boldness and courage.
The result is a healthy society, having independent individuals. The ideas’ of 21st century’s woman are totally different from that of 14th century’s. Now she is aware enough to demand for equal rights in every filed of life. She could be no more kept confined under the four walls of her house, reaching her children only. In our male chauvinistic society today’s woman wants to do every thing together with her male partner to produce a conducive society which has equal opportunities for both men and women on same line. To confine women in a separate educational institution is to cut her off from a normal set of the society. Therefore it is in urgent need to bring her side by side with man during her very academic years.
But the question is that at which level co-education could be more fruitful and less harmful. Here difference of opinion is possible. Generally speaking it is believed that co-education is essential at the elementary and then at the post-graduate level. The level between the above two is that of college. In our zone boys and girls become young at an early age. They become sex conscious at this level and are emotionally attracted towards each other. It becomes more than difficult for the administrators to keep a proper check on them for their reformation. As a result, lots of troubles arise. The studies of the students are badly suffered. The harmony of the institution turns into chaos and disruptions. Instead of doing good as an educational institution is poisons the whole society. If in such a situation students are forced and emotionally suppressed, another serious psychological problem is created.
It has also been observed that in some cases co-education causes injury to the very personality of the male students. The main purpose of education is personality and character development but studying together with girls, some time boys develop girlish habits i.e. they start giving facial expressions and gestures with hands just like girls. It badly damages their personality.
In fact co-education needs to be encouraged at primary level because the psychology of both girls and boys is alike at that age level. They share same likes and dislikes. Their interests are of similar nature. Co-education at this level helps in developing a sense of completion among male and female children and has no side effects.
If co-education is supported at the post-graduate level it is only on the ground that at this level students are mature enough to understand the ups and downs of their society. They have better understanding of their surroundings.
To sum up, keeping in view the problems of over population in our country Pakistan, it is wise enough to build separate educational institutions for girls and boys if we wish to have a stable Islamic society.
The writer is an Assistant Professor of English at government girls degree college.
Posted on January 11, 2013 by datelinepeshawar
By Zakia Khanum
When new academic year begins, staff meeting is called to consult about subjects so that new “Time Table” may be set for the new session. This is an important meeting in an educational institute but at the same time it is very “unpleasant” meeting also. The staff members are requested to select subjects and classes. Some of them willingly while most of them unwillingly accept one or two subjects among school subjects. When they hear the most “unpleasant” word “mathematics” they become a little alert their facial expression give an air of depression. However, one or two teachers accept (for courtesy sake) this bitter subject, while some of them become furious and try to throw away this pinching heavy burden.
Let us see what are the reasons of their reaction? I think the following are the reasons.
1) Unfortunately some teachers have no command over this subject and they cannot teach it well, therefore, they get rid of it.
2) Some teachers have command over this subject but they complaint that students cannot understand while they taught.
3) Why the students do cannot understand while they are being taught at High School level. The answer is that they do not know the fundamental know how of this subject, therefore, they cannot go ahead.
This poor subject is not like by most of the students as well as teachers but is fact mathematics is essential because mathematics enables a person to maintain his daily accounts. Mathematics is a part and partial of human life. Nobody will deny the
Fact that in every field of human life mathematics is used in some way or other.
1) All the scientific achievements and inventions depend upon various branches of mathematics. Man has made successfully has approach to the moon through technology and computer science. No doubt the structure of computer is based on the principals of mathematics.
2) No institution can work without mathematics. It is mathematics that keeps their records data and progress report in every spare of life mathematics will come you whether it is medical department, engineering, agricultural, education, scientific field or business world.
3) Mathematics is at work even in our Islamic jurisprudence. It is mathematics that makes an individual aware of his wealth, possessions and income. In Zakat system mathematics helps the individual to full fill the obligation and pay the prescribed amount or quantity as it is ordered by the Almighty Allah.
In a very important and prominent field of Islamic jurisprudence, Qanoon-Verasat i-e the law of inheritance again it is mathematics that support a person’s right by indicating his/her correct share.
Mathematics helps us in our daily prayers and in the month of Ramadan also. It enables us to know the exact number, time, schedule and time limits of day and night.
4) A house wife looks forward to mathematics to help her in mentioning her house-hold accounts. Mathematics tells her the number possessions and other items related to her house. Mathematics does not leave her alone even in kitchen; it comes for help to tell the quantity and ratio of cooking materials.
5) Mathematics is helpful to everybody whether educated or uneducated. A former, a tailor, a baker or a shopkeeper all of them cannot do their jobs without measurement or weighing. Even young children utilize mathematics in their games.
6) Mathematics proves it existence in literature too. In history the correct date and year, the number of days, years and centuries. In every language idioms, phrases and proverbs needs mathematics for its structure i-e
i) Two and two makes four.
ii) Two of a trade seldom agrees.
iii) Fifth column.
iv) At eleventh hour.
v) A bird in hand is better than two in the bush.
vi) It takes two to make a quarrel.
The writer is an ex-principal of government girls Degree College.
SHORT STORY “Desire”
Posted on January 9, 2013 by datelinepeshawar
By Hamida Bano
“So long as law shall exist which creates hell in the midst of civilization. So long as men are degraded, women ruined and children afraid. So long as there shall be ignorance , Poverty wretchedness on this earth , stories such as this one must be told.”
It was a hot summer noon the labors on the main city roads were breaking mountainous rocks for the repairing of the road, they had worn, tattered clothes which were wet with sweat. Whenever a car or bus passed through the road they would stop hammering for a while. Their lives were always in danger no one was aware of his good or bad luck.
Zarina had a basket on her head full of toys, she was breathing heavily, all day long she was selling toys but she couldn’t earn even a penny. When she was passing through the main city road she stopped for a while and looked at the labors on the road, that sight reminded her of many passed events, thirty-three years ago her husband had been doing the same labor. He had seen her for the first time on the same road and then sent his mother to her house for her. Suddenly her eyes filled with tears because at the same road he had died in a car accident when Zarina was but a newly married bride. she was left alone in her unhappy world, she had no one in the world except her husband. One day, a neighbor told her “people don’t die with those who are already dead. Every person has his own life time and he must live it”. But now she lived all alone, she needed support because she was young but no one wanted to marry her,.people thought her ill-starred. Oh ALLAH, she was helpless. What could she do then; her neighbors suggested that as her husband died in government service she should approach the head of the city for help. Zarina did as her neighbors told her however she was ignored because she was told that the death of her husband was not accidental. After this Zarina borrowed some money from a neighbor and started work so she could at least have bread to eat. she began selling toys in the streets. Once she told her neighbour, “it was the great desire of my husband that we have our own house, he had spent his whole life in a rented house. I want to fulfill his desire through thick and thin”.
Presently she bought a piece of land on a road side. she spent all she had on that land, and she wanted to deposit money for the construction of the house. It was her future plan to allow all those women who were neglected by the world or who were helpless like herself to stand on their on feet. She was too weak as the weight of the basket increased day by day because she wanted to build a house and it needed a large sum of money. However, she was satisfied because her great desire was going to be fulfilled. One day a boy came to her and said, “Mother! I have just read in the newspaper that the government has declared that it is going to widen all the city roads by including the outside area”. Zarina couldn’t understand what the boy told her. She said, “What do you mean by telling this to me.” But the boy went away before repeating his words. Zarina thought and thought and at last came to the point. Until then she had no strength to rise. After a few days she went to her land: Some men were measuring it,. she told them, “This is my land, my sweat and blood is mixed in its soil, why you want to snatch it from me?” One of the men said, “Mother! It is a governmental order , if you really want to gain your right then go to the head office.” And Zarmina knew the way to the head office, she went there and after great effort approached the secretary and told him” you see my son, how old and fragile I am. I have crossed a long way to approach this office.”Then she told him everything about her land, she implored him, “Please tell your officer that an old woman wants to meet him only fora few seconds.” “He is attending some meeting, please come tomorrow,” said the secretary. Next day Zarmina once again went there but the secretary told her the same thing. She begged him to do something for her. So the secretary went to the officer and returned after a few moments. He said to the old woman “why do you want to destroy my job?” He said,” if we give you the price of your land other people will demand the same and you know that if we give you the price and not to other people then it will be injustice.”Do you people know the meaning of justice?” Thirty three years ago my husband died in your service, where was your justice then”? The old woman said passionately. The secretary became angry and called his peon. “Push her out. She wants to create disturbance.” Your justice is only for higher-ups and not poor people like us! The old woman shouted when the Peon was pushing her out. When Zarina was pushed out she fell on the floor helplessly. what is humanity, brotherhood, sympathy and equality they are words which have no real meaning, they simply lie in dictionaries. Perhaps the uncivilized people of the past were more prosperous and happy than the civilized men of today. They had no such false laws as we have today, there was no hypocrisy.
Zarina rose up and walked towards the west where the horizon hides behind the black and dreadful mountains. These words were on her lips, “Please give me a yard of land for my grave.” The next day she was found in a ditch down by a bridge.
The writer is an Assistant Professor of English in government girls degree college and contributed the story to ” Dateline Peshawar”.